P.d.o – Objet direct précédent


Let's Define It!

What's a *p.d.o*?

A p.d.o (or objet direct précédent in French)  is an acronym for Preceding Direct Object. 

The term p.d.o appears always in the context of a past participle of the passé composé (or other compound tenses), which always reflects its gender and number.

Sometimes, the .p.d.o appears as a pronoun directly in front of (i.e. preceding) the verbal clause (i.e. passé composé) -->

Cette mangue, je l'ai dégustée. This mango, I savored it. The p.d.o (here, the pronoun l') precedes the verbal clause (i.e. appears in front of it) and reflects its gender and number singular-feminine)

Some other times, if the passé composé is used inside a relative clause, the antecedent to this relative clause may potentially be the p.d.o despite not preceding directly the passé composé verbal clause.

Voici les mangues que ma mère a achetées au supermarché. Here are the mangos that my mother bought at the supermarket. 


Let's Pronounce It!

What does it sound like in French?


Let's Have an Example or Two!

Can a little reinforcement do the trick?

Below, you will find sentences that contain preceding direct objects, underlined and in bold for your convenience.

As-tu reçu la lettre que je t'ai écrite? [Have you received the letter that I wrote you?]

Ces enfants-là, je les ai nourris pendant des dizaines d'années. [These children, I fed them for decades.]


Sa femme, il l'a rencontrée pour la première fois dans un bar. His wife, he met her for the first time at a bar.

Ce ne sont les graines que nous avons semées. These are the seeds that we sowed. 


Let's Take a Quiz!

What did you learn?